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APA Citation Guide

Paper Set-Up

  • APA now has different title page requirements for student papers. This title page does not require a running head and has a different set of information to include. See APA Style: Student Title Page Guide.
  • Titles of papers are now bolded, with a blank line before the author's name.
  • There is no font requirement as long as the font is legible and consistent.
  • The heading for the References list is now bolded.
  • There are now guidelines for annotated bibliographies.

In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations

APA has simplified in-text citations in regards to multiple authors. If there is one or two authors, list their names:

(Cummings, 2019); (Cummings & O'Donahue, 2019)

For three or more authors, list only the first author's name and then et al.

(Cummings et al, 2019)

Formatting Author Names

In a reversal, APA now requires listing up to 20 authors for a source in the references list. This is a change from 8 in the 6th edition.

For works with more than 20 authors, list the first 19, insert an ellipsis point, and then list the last author's name.

Cummings, N., Cummings, J., O;Donahue, W., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. ... Zhang, Z. Z. (Date). Title. Source.


For books, the publication location is no longer listed.

Cummings, N. A., & Cummings, J. L. (2013). Refocused psychotherapy as the first line intervention in behavioral health. Routledge.

If a book has a DOI assigned to it, add it to the end of the reference.

Sayre, R., Devercelli, A.E., Neuman, M.J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world bank’s recent experience. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8

eBooks should be cited exactly as print books. Do not include a database.

Rahman, S., Howard, R., Harrison Dening, K., & Swaffer, K. (2018). Essentials of dementia : Everything you really need to know for working in dementia care. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Sacred texts should now be included in the references list (the 6th edition only required an in-text citation).

The Bhagavad Gita. (E. Easwaran, Trans.; 2nd ed.). (2007). The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)


Always include the issue number. Previously if the issues were paginated continuously, you did not need to include it. The formatting of the DOI should now follow the format

De Lucia, N., Grossi, D., Milan, G., & Trojano, L. (2020). The closing-in phenomenon in constructional tasks in dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 34(2), 168–175.

If a journal article does not have a DOI, you may end the citation after the page numbers. There is no longer a requirement to include the URL of the journal's homepage.

Lederer, A.-K., Maly, C., Weinert, T., & Huber, R. (2019). Tissue stiffness is not related to pain experience: An individually controlled study in patients with chronic neck and back pain. Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine (ECAM), 1–8.

However, if an article is open access, you may choose to link directly to the article's full text.

Lussier, D., Cruz-Almeida, Y., & Ebner, N. C. (2019). Musculoskeletal pain and brain morphology: Oxytocin’s potential as a treatment for chronic pain in aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 11.  https://

If an article has an article number, use that in place of the page numbers

Glynn, L. H., Chen, J. A., Dawson, T. C., Gelman, H., & Zeliadt, S. B. (2020). Bringing chronic-pain care to rural veterans: A telehealth pilot program description. Psychological Services. Article 7.

You may use a shortened DOI if desired.

Grasset, L., Glymour, M. M., Elfassy, T., Swift, S. L., Yaffe, K., Singh-Manoux, A., & Al Hazzouri, A. Z. (2019). Relation between 20-year income volatility and brain health in midlife: The CARDIA study. Neurology.

Magazine/Newspaper Articles

Include a URL if it will take the reader to the full text without logging in. The article title is formatted regularly and the newspaper or magazine title is italicized.

Warriach, H. J.  (2014, March 19).  A wedding in intensive care.   The New York Times.

If a magazine or news site does not have an associated daily/weekly publication, use the guidelines for a webpage. Examples include CNN and the Huffington Post.


Omit the words 'Retrieved from' before the URL. Include the name of the website unless it is the same as the author. Italicize the name of the webpage.

Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010, February 1). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high.

You may use a URL shortener like tinyurl or if you wish.

Cummings Graduate Institute. (n.d.). About the Doctor of Behavioral Health degree.

Course Materials

APA now clarifies that if the audience for the paper being written can access materials that may be in an LMS, these can be included in the references list. Previously, these were considered non-retrievable sources and were to be cited as personal communication.

Cummings, J. (2019). [Lecture notes on psychiatric medications for grief and bereavement]. D2L Brightspace at Cummings Graduate Institute.

Annotated Bibliographies

APA now has guidelines for an annotated bibliography. Annotations will be a new paragraph, indented 0.5" from the left.

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America.  Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation. An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.