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Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism Explained in Under Three Minutes

Direct Quotations v Summary v Paraphrase

THE BASICS:

  • Cite when referencing a source and stating someone else's ideas, research, opinions, or thoughts
  • Cite when using an image, media file, document, or just about anything you did not create yourself.


THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO REFER TO A SOURCE:

  • Direct quotation
  • Summary
  • Paraphrasing

     


IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO CITE THE FOLLOWING:

  • Your thoughts, explanations, and interpretations
  • Common knowledge

 

This Libguide section was inspired by one at Butler University, who graciously agreed to share their work. 

Source:  Butler University (2015).  Academic Integrity @ Butler.  Retrieved from http://libguides.butler.edu/c.php?g=34302&p=218280

"Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author" (Driscoll & Brizee, 2013).

This quotation is taken word for word from the Purdue Online Writing Lab. Since the OWL's exact words are being used, credit is given to the authors, Driscoll & Brizee, using an in-text citation.  An entry would also be made in the paper's reference list as follows:

 

 


 

WHEN IS A DIRECT QUOTE APPROPRIATE?

Most of the time, summarizing or paraphrasing is a better choice.  Direct quotes are best under the following circumstances:

  • When the phrasing is unique or strengthens your argument
  • When the essence or meaning of the text would be lost if summarized or paraphrased
  • When you want to invoke the authority of the author, and that authority is emphasized through the author's exact words.

WHEN USING A  DIRECT QUOTE ...

  • Use quotation marks around all words copied from a source.
  • Follow formatting guidelines for using short or long (more than 40 words) quotations.
  • Provide an in-text citation for the source of the exact words you used immediately after the quotation
  • List a complete citation for the source on your references page.

STILL HAVE QUESTIONS?

DEFINITION OF SUMMARY

"A summary involves Involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).... Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material" (Driscoll & Brizee, 2013).

The passage above is a direct quotation from the Purdue OWL.  Now take a look at that same passage, which has been summarized, or which restates the most important ideas in the writer's own words.  A summary is usually much shorter than the original passage:

Summaries are short restatements of main ideas.


WHEN SHOULD SUMMARY BE USED?

  • To provide useful background information for your audience
  • When concise, general, broad information is all that is needed

HOW TO INCLUDE SUMMARY PROPERLY IN YOUR WRITING

  • Since you are not directly quoting an author word-for-word, there is no need for quotation marks around your summary.
  • Credit the source with an in-text citation;  be aware that APA requests you provide a page or paragraph number whenever available.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ...

Grounds for Argument:  How to Summarize Accurately

Harvard Guide to Using Sources:  When and How to Summarize

http://www.nwmissouri.edu/library/services/plagtips.htm

https://www.umuc.edu/students/academic-integrity/vail-tutorial.cfm

http://libguides.nl.edu/content.php?pid=16608&sid=5360442

http://libguides.butler.edu/c.php?g=34302&p=218282

DEFINITION OF PARAPHRASE:

"A paraphrase is a detailed restatement in your own words of a written or sometimes spoken source material. Apart from the changes in organization, wording, and sentence structure, the paraphrase should be nearly identical in meaning to the original passage. It should also be near the same length as the original passage and present the details of the original." University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.). Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.

Paraphrasing is "your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form." Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012). Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

Let's look at how a writer would paraphrase the definition from the Purdue OWL.

When you paraphrase, you take a passage from a source and put it into your own words. The original source must still be cited. Usually, the paraphrased version will be shorter than the original (Driscoll and Brizee, 2013).

Even though the paraphrased version isn't exactly the same as the source quotation, the idea is still the same. Therefore, it's important to give credit to the original writers.

Information in this section provided by Butler University http://libguides.butler.edu/c.php?g=34302&p=218282 and by National Louis University http://libguides.nl.edu/content.php?pid=16608&sid=5360442


WHEN PARAPHRASING ...

  • Paraphrase an author's words by stating his or her ideas in your own words with your own phrasing.  Be sure to change both the sentence structure and wording.
  • Compare your paraphrased writing with the author's exact words to make sure you have not copied phrases or sentences from the author.
  • Always provide a citation for the paraphrased ideas.

PARAPHRASING versus SUMMARY:  WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE?

Similarities

  • Both involve a restatement of the original author's ideas and words. 
  • Both require that you, the writer, give credit to the original source. 
  • Both require that what you end up writing sounds more like you than the original author.

Differences 

  • A paraphrase is a restatement that accurately represents the ideas in an author's original work, using your unique phrasing and vocabulary.
  • A summary condenses the original author's words into just a few main ideas.  It is meant to be short.
  • The main difference lies in purpose.  A paraphrase should focus on communicating the source material in a way that sounds uniquely like the writer who is restating the ideas.  Length is not a concern.  A summary is designed to capture the main idea of source material in brief form.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ...

Leonard Lief Library and Lehman Studios (2014). Just Because You Put It In Your Own Words... Retrieved from

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6T2lZ51iFI&feature=youtu.be

DEFINITION OF COMMON KNOWLEDGE

Common knowledge is information that is considered widely known or can be easily verified. 

Common knowledge does not need to be cited.

 

EXAMPLES OF COMMON KNOWLEDGE

  • Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
  • Water freezes around 32 degree Fahrenheit.
  • The Great Lakes are located in the Midwest.
  • Steve Jobs was the inventor of many Apple products.

 

CONSIDER YOUR AUDIENCE

What seems common to you may not be common to everyone, especially if the common knowledge to which you are referring is based primarily upon culture or geography.   For example, anyone who has taken basic American history knows about Thomas Jefferson's contributions to our nation, but someone who has been raised elsewhere and who immigrated to the US later may not have that same background knowledge.   In those cases, it is helpful to refer readers to outside sources for that information so they may pursue the topics on their own.