THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO REFER TO A SOURCE:
IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO CITE THE FOLLOWING:
This Libguide section was inspired by one at Butler University, who graciously agreed to share their work.
Source: Butler University (2015). Academic Integrity @ Butler. Retrieved from http://libguides.butler.edu/c.php?g=34302&p=218280
"Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author" (Driscoll & Brizee, 2013).
This quotation is taken word for word from the Purdue Online Writing Lab. Since the OWL's exact words are being used, credit is given to the authors, Driscoll & Brizee, using an in-text citation. An entry would also be made in the paper's reference list as follows:
WHEN IS A DIRECT QUOTE APPROPRIATE?
Most of the time, summarizing or paraphrasing is a better choice. Direct quotes are best under the following circumstances:
WHEN USING A DIRECT QUOTE ...
STILL HAVE QUESTIONS?
DEFINITION OF SUMMARY
"A summary involves Brizee, 2013).
The passage above is a direct quotation from the Purdue OWL. Now take a look at that same passage, which has been summarized, or which restates the most important ideas in the writer's own words. A summary is usually much shorter than the original passage:
Summaries are short restatements of main ideas.
WHEN SHOULD SUMMARY BE USED?
HOW TO INCLUDE SUMMARY PROPERLY IN YOUR WRITING
FOR MORE INFORMATION ...
Grounds for Argument: How to Summarize Accurately
Harvard Guide to Using Sources: When and How to Summarize
DEFINITION OF PARAPHRASE:
"A paraphrase is a detailed restatement in your own words of a written or sometimes spoken source material. Apart from the changes in organization, wording, and sentence structure, the paraphrase should be nearly identical in meaning to the original passage. It should also be near the same length as the original passage and present the details of the original." University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.). Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.
When you paraphrase, you take a passage from a source and put it into your own words. The original source must still be cited. Usually, the paraphrased version will be shorter than the original (Driscoll and Brizee, 2013).
Even though the paraphrased version isn't exactly the same as the source quotation, the idea is still the same. Therefore, it's important to give credit to the original writers.
Information in this section provided by Butler University http://libguides.butler.edu/c.php?g=34302&p=218282 and by National Louis University http://libguides.nl.edu/content.php?pid=16608&sid=5360442
WHEN PARAPHRASING ...
PARAPHRASING versus SUMMARY: WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE?
FOR MORE INFORMATION ...
Leonard Lief Library and Lehman Studios (2014). Just Because You Put It In Your Own Words... Retrieved from
DEFINITION OF COMMON KNOWLEDGE
Common knowledge is information that is considered widely known or can be easily verified.
Common knowledge does not need to be cited.
EXAMPLES OF COMMON KNOWLEDGE
CONSIDER YOUR AUDIENCE
What seems common to you may not be common to everyone, especially if the common knowledge to which you are referring is based primarily upon culture or geography. For example, anyone who has taken basic American history knows about Thomas Jefferson's contributions to our nation, but someone who has been raised elsewhere and who immigrated to the US later may not have that same background knowledge. In those cases, it is helpful to refer readers to outside sources for that information so they may pursue the topics on their own.